In New York and many parts of the United States, the level of benefits is related to prior earnings, which ensures they provide a basic living. In the U.
Even allowing for housing and child benefits, British benefit levels are substantially lower than levels in many other countries, and this is one of Mrs. Additionally, the high unemployment rates were a direct consequence of misguided government policies. An overvalued pound rendered large swaths of British industry uncompetitive with foreign suppliers, and export industries such as steel, shipbuilding, and engineering were decimated.
Many towns and cities, particularly in the north, never properly recovered from the Thatcher-era deindustrialization, which is one of the reasons she is still very unpopular in many areas. In other regions and industries, particularly in the deregulated financial sector, some people did very well.
Consequently, income inequality rose sharply. In the nineteen-seventies, the Gini co-efficient, a common measure of this gap between rich and poor, averaged By the mid-nineties, the Gini had jumped to Indeed, by this measure, Britain is now the most economically unequal big country in Europe.
It still lags behind the U. Adopting the commonsense value judgment that an additional dollar of income is worth more to a poor person than a rich one, economists sometimes adjust G. Another way of saying a society is classless is to say it exhibits a lot of social mobility. But studies show that since Mrs. Thatcher came to power, in , social mobility has gone down rather than up. Far from becoming more classless, Britain has gotten even more class bound. Some of the progress that was made during the post-war years has been reversed. The seminal paper in this area was published about ten years ago by four British economists Jo Blanden, Stephen Machin, Alissa Goodman, and Paul Gregg who analyzed the incomes of one group of Britons born in the pre-Thatcher cohort and one born in the post-Thatcher cohort.
If the correlation co-efficient is high, it means economic status is passed down the generations, which is happens in a class-ridden society. The economic status of the cohort is much more strongly connected to parental economic status than the cohort. In an article published in , Blanden, Gregg, and Machin summarized their findings and related them to the broader debate about rising inequality:. The rapid increase in UK income inequality that began in is sometimes justified by the argument that society is now more meritocratic so that it is easier for the poor to become richer if they are willing and able to work hard.
In fact, our research shows that the opposite has occurred—there has actually been a fall in the degree of social mobility over recent decades.
Children born to poor families are now less likely to break free of their background and fulfill their potential than they were in the past. More recent studies have produced similar results, and even some members of the Conservative Party have acknowledged the reality. Of course, Mrs. Blanden et al. Still, the data is pretty clear: the decline in social mobility began during her premiership. The reference to education brings me to another drawback with Thatcherism. By slashing the education budget and holding down the salaries of teachers and academics, Mrs.
milquiprofinom.cf: The Greatest British Prime Ministers: Gladstone, Lloyd George, Attlee and Thatcher eBook: George Chamier: Kindle Store. The Greatest British Prime Ministers: Gladstone, Lloyd George, Attlee and Thatcher eBook: George Chamier: milquiprofinom.cf: Kindle Store.
Thatcher drove away many able educators, some of whom came to the United States, where salaries and research budgets were more generous. An Oxford-trained chemist, she even cut the research budget for sciences like chemistry, biology, and medicine—a policy that earned her rebukes from senior executives at Glaxo and I.
The Old Age Pension Act of laid the foundation of the modern welfare state. This was followed by the National Insurance Act of , that provided an income for working people suffering illness or unemployment. He also led Britain into the First World War. Liberal Herbert Henry Asquith — In order to gain maximum support for the ongoing war Asquith formed a coalition government. The conflict however, was not going well and so with deadlock in the trenches, Asquith resigned.
He lasted just days in office before resigning due to ill health and died just 6 months later. Conservative Stanley Baldwin — Just a few months into office and much to the surprise of all around him, Baldwin called an early general election on the issue of protectionist trade tariffs.
As head of a minority government, he was reliant on the support of the Liberals. Frustrated by his inability to introduce meaningful legislation he called an early election. Labour Stanley Baldwin — In his second term in office, Baldwin was responsible for several notable social achievements including extending the right to vote to women aged over He successfully steered the country through the rocky waters of the General Strike of Just a few months into his term however, the world was shaken by the Wall Street Crash of , Labour Ramsey MacDonald — With his Labour government divided on how to resolve an economic crisis that included the doubling of unemployment levels; MacDonald resigned but was reappointed at the head of a national coalition government with support from the Conservative and Liberal parties.
This move cost him the support of his own party and he once again resigned national coalition Stanley Baldwin — Returning to office for the third time, his major achievement in this last phase of his career was to steer the country through the abdication of King Edward VIII in Recognising the threat of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany, Baldwin started a programme of re-arming the country.
He was later criticised for not doing more to prepare. Following the invasion of Poland, Chamberlain declared war on Germany on 3 September, His government introduced liberising laws in the fields of capital punishment, abortion, homosexuality and divorce. On the issue of the economy; the powerful trade-union bosses refused to be controlled, resulting in a rise in unemployment and inflation. A period of great industrial upheaval and economic decline, his major achievement was leading Britain into the European Common Market. To the surprise of all concerned and just 5 days after his 60th birthday, Wilson resigned suddenly, making way for the older James Callaghan.
The unions reaction to this was a wave of strikes that saw the dead not buried and rubbish lining the streets of Britain, uncollected. The defining moment of her premiership came in April , when she led the country to war against Argentina in the Falkland Islands. The successful outcome of the campaign transformed her standing in the opinion polls.
Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham — Bowing to public pressure from disaffected American colonists and British manufacturers, the unenforceable Stamp Act was repealed. Augustus Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton — Assumed the top job after Pitt fell ill, his short time in charge mainly involved attempting to restore friendly relations with the American colonies.
Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth — Although the Treaty of Amiens in temporarily halted the hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain, the uneasy truce ended in May when Britain again declared war on France. William Pitt the Younger — With the renewed outbreak of war with France, Pitt was returned to office. Exhausted by the demands of the top job, he died in office aged just William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland — Although aged and in poor health, Portland assumed the top job for the second time.
Spencer Perceval — With economic depression and Luddite agitation at home, and the threat of Napoleon in Europe, his administration was divided and repressive. George Canning — To date the shortest serving Prime Minister, Canning died suddenly from pneumonia, barely 5 months after assuming office.
Lord Salisbury. Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. James Callaghan.
Edward Heath. Ramsay MacDonald.
Neville Chamberlain. Arthur Balfour. Alec Douglas-Home.
Anthony Eden. Gordon Brown. Sir Alec Douglas-Home. Sir Anthony Eden.